Farm Progress

Outdoor access requirements and trying to “entice” birds outside makes one wonder how larger operations can comply.

Jacqui Fatka, Policy editor

April 29, 2016

3 Min Read

This week Senate Agriculture Committee chairman Pat Roberts, R-Kan., had less than kind words about how the U.S. Department of Agriculture is calling for producers to “entice” birds to go outside. He questioned, what is chicken enrichment anyway? “It might be yoga, video games, sports, a gourmet meal or maybe even a strolling violin,” he quipped.

It’s been a couple of weeks since the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) released its proposal for organic livestock standards. It has been years in the making dating back to 2011 and it appears it could pit those who have chosen organics as a business versus the “pure organics.”

One of the biggest changes in the poultry side of the rule pertains to the outside access requirements laid out in the proposal. Specifically the rule states, “Outside access and door spacing must be designed to promote and encourage outside access for all birds on a daily basis. Producers must provide access to the outdoors at an early age to encourage (train) birds to go outdoors. Outdoor areas must have suitable enrichment to entice birds to go outside.”

Roberts is leading a bipartisan effort to garner support for a letter to USDA asking for a more commonsense rule. He noted some of the wording tries to appeal to those “pure organic folks” which Roberts said he doesn’t think is necessary.

The rule also stated that space that has a solid roof overhead and is attached to the structure providing indoor space does not meet the definition of outdoor access and must not be included in the calculation of outdoor space. And at least 50% of outdoor access space must be soil.

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Outdoor access is integral to organic production, and consumers expect that it is standard practice throughout the organic egg sector. However, outdoor access is not mandatory for all third-party animal welfare certification programs. This is why AMS said it is proposing to set outdoor stocking densities for poultry and to clarify whether porches are acceptable for outdoor access.

AMS did not estimate the potential cost to implement this proposed requirement due to wide variability in the site-specific conditions. AMS said it does make assumptions about whether producers have the adequate land base to accommodate the outdoor stocking density. However, even producers who have the adequate land base may need to modify that area (e.g, install fencing) to provide access to the soil.

In its analysis of the rule, AMS said the outdoor space is the key constraint that drives the costs of complying with the proposed rule. AMS postulates that a producer will consider two options in response to this proposed rule: (1) Comply with the proposed rule and remain in the organic egg market; or (2) transition to the cage-free egg market.

AMS expects the marginal cost to produce one dozen eggs would increase under the proposed rule for each type of housing system except pasture. For floor litter and slatted/mesh floor housing, AMS estimates the marginal costs to produce one dozen eggs would increase by 2.8%; for aviary systems those marginal costs would increase by 3.3%.

Some major organic players are seeking an extension on the rule’s comment period which currently closes June 13. They are seeking more accurate information is included and account for a more precise understanding of how the industry has progressed. It is speculated that the department will try to finalize the rule ahead of the next administration entering which could make time for any changes more challenging.

About the Author(s)

Jacqui Fatka

Policy editor, Farm Futures

Jacqui Fatka grew up on a diversified livestock and grain farm in southwest Iowa and graduated from Iowa State University with a bachelor’s degree in journalism and mass communications, with a minor in agriculture education, in 2003. She’s been writing for agricultural audiences ever since. In college, she interned with Wallaces Farmer and cultivated her love of ag policy during an internship with the Iowa Pork Producers Association, working in Sen. Chuck Grassley’s Capitol Hill press office. In 2003, she started full time for Farm Progress companies’ state and regional publications as the e-content editor, and became Farm Futures’ policy editor in 2004. A few years later, she began covering grain and biofuels markets for the weekly newspaper Feedstuffs. As the current policy editor for Farm Progress, she covers the ongoing developments in ag policy, trade, regulations and court rulings. Fatka also serves as the interim executive secretary-treasurer for the North American Agricultural Journalists. She lives on a small acreage in central Ohio with her husband and three children.

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