By Dana Schweitzer
Last week, the World Wildlife Fund released its 2018-19 overwintering monarch population report. Adult monarch butterflies covered approximately 15 acres of forest canopy in Mexico, a doubling of last year’s population, and a level not seen since 10 years ago. Butterflies pollinate plants, including agricultural crops.
The report provides hope, say leaders of the Iowa Monarch Conservation Consortium. “Although the number of monarch butterflies overwintering in Mexico has rebounded considerably, turning this encouraging one-year population response into a consistent long-term trend depends on advancing conservation efforts that are critical to help monarchs survive and reproduce in Iowa and the Upper Midwest,” says Steve Bradbury, professor of natural resource ecology and management at Iowa State University.
Providing conservation habitat
Monarch butterflies face many challenges including the loss of milkweed and nectar plant habitat in their spring and summer breeding ranges. Female monarchs lay eggs exclusively on milkweed plants. National and state efforts focus on establishment of new milkweed habitat to also help reach soil and water conservation goals.
"This year's high watermark is very encouraging. Iowa has a critical role to play in providing summer breeding habitat for the monarch for years to come," says Bruce Trautman, acting director of the Iowa Department of Natural Resources. "We have a really strong group with broad expertise working together to support the monarch recovery in Iowa and beyond."
Habitat plantings include milkweed and a diverse array of blooming species to provide nectar for adult monarchs throughout their life cycle and seasonal migrations. The current Iowa Monarch Conservation Strategy seeks to establish about 480,000 to 830,000 acres of monarch habitat by 2038.
Iowa’s strategy, combined with those of neighboring states, is designed to consistently maintain a yearly population of 225 million adult monarchs, or about 15 acres of occupied forest canopy.
Pollinators play important role
“Monarchs are crop pollinators. The increase in monarch butterfly population numbers is encouraging, and serves as a reminder of the importance and impact of our ongoing conservation efforts," says Mike Naig, Iowa secretary of agriculture. "Iowa's long-term strategy includes expanding habitat for monarchs on our agricultural land, urban areas, roadsides and other public land."
The Iowa consortium is a group of 50 organizations, including ag and conservation associations, agribusiness and utility companies, universities, and county, state and federal agencies. Roughly 40% of all monarch butterflies that overwinter in Mexico are estimated to come from Iowa and neighboring Midwest states. Expanding monarch habitat in Iowa will play a major role in the recovery of the species.
“Progress always starts with good science, and our researchers continue to make strides to understand what it takes to improve and increase monarch habitat through a deeper understanding of biology and the environment,” says Daniel Robison, dean of the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Iowa State University. “Our Extension and outreach efforts, in coordination with regional, national and private partners, are doing much to provide the science-based information and education that ensures approaches to monarch conservation are as effective as they can possibly be.”
Iowa conservation efforts help
The Iowa strategy — developed by consortium members — guides the implementation and documentation of voluntary, statewide conservation efforts based on the best available science. Their approach fosters habitat improvements in rural landscapes that do not conflict with agricultural production, are sufficient in scale to support improved monarch breeding success and strive to complement other conservation programs.
For more about the Iowa Monarch Conservation Consortium, visit iowamonarchs.info.
Schweitzer is program coordinator for the Iowa Monarch Conservation Consortium, which is solely responsible for information provided. Informa Business Media and subsidiaries aren’t responsible for any of the content contained in this information asset.