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Serving: MO
tractor and truck unloading chopped corn silage for feed Courtesy of Gene Schmitz
GREEN MATTERS: MU Extension livestock specialist Gene Schmitz recommends that beef producers use chopped silage rather than baleage for beef cattle. As the drought of 2018 continues, farmers are turning to drought-stressed corn as an alternative feed source.

Drought corn for silage or baleage?

MU Extension livestock specialist says beef producers should chop corn for silage.

For farmers looking to put up drought-stressed corn for feed, Gene Schmitz says silage is best.

The University of Missouri Extension livestock specialist says farmers are trying to decide between harvesting corn earlier for silage or baleage. Schmitz finds chopped corn silage offers beef producers better options than baleage.

Silage allows better control of the amount of high-energy feed for wintering cattle, Schmitz says. Baleage offers less flexibility and control of portion size.

“From a diet perspective, we generally limit corn silage for beef cows to somewhere between 20% to 60% of diet dry matter, depending upon the stage of production, body condition and energy content of the silage,” he says.

This prevents cattle from getting too fat and avoids unnecessary feeding costs.

“It’s almost impossible to limit-feed a bale of corn silage unless it is tub-ground and mixed with grass hay and/or other feed ingredients,” Schmitz says. “I think it is important to understand this limitation, especially if the silage is carrying some nitrate with it.”

Schmitz says the best silage is finely chopped and tightly packed to get rid of excess oxygen. Cover it immediately to protect against the elements, which cause spoilage and nutrient loss. Chop corn when it is still green. Moisture levels must be high enough, generally 60% to 70%, for corn to ferment properly. But it should not be too high, or it will become prone to seepage and bacteria.

Pile silage on the ground and pack it from all sides to feed, Schmitz says. Avoid putting silage in a hay “bunker” made out of round bales. It is difficult to rid the silage of oxygen in uncovered bunkers made of bales. Using bale bunkers leads to inadequate packing, shifting of bales during packing and possible tractor rollovers, he says.

Schmitz recommends that farmers who want to chop or bale corn have the corn tested for nitrates at their county MU Extension center. High nitrate content leads to nitrate poisoning in ruminants. He also recommends testing silage for nutrient content and nitrates before feeding.

For more information, the MU Extension publication “Corn Silage” is available at A publication on drought-related issues in forage, silage and baleage is available at

Source: University of Missouri Extension


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