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Producers, applicators reminded to 'Flag the Technology,' 'Hit the Target'

spraying cotton

As the 2018 growing season on the Texas High Plains begins, growers and applicators are reminded to utilize two useful programs to increase communication among growers and avoid crop injury.

The “Flag the Technology” program, which originated in Arkansas, was introduced in Texas with the advent of new herbicide resistance technologies last season. Growers place colored flags at entry points on fields, with each flag color representing a different kind of technology, allowing herbicide and pesticide applicators to readily determine which products are appropriate and safe to use on a specific field. A mobile app, which emphasizes good record keeping, is available for the program.

The following are flag colors and uses:

  • White: Technology is tolerant to glyphosate herbicides.
  • Green: Tolerant to glufosinate herbicide, Liberty.
  • Yellow: Clearfield rice, sunflowers, wheat and canola which are tolerant to imidazolinone herbicides.
  • Teal: Tolerant to both 2,4-D and FOP (ACCase) herbicides, or Enlist technology. The white stripes indicate tolerance to glyphosate, Roundup. For Enlist cotton traits and soybean fields, a green flag should be added to denote tolerance to glufosinate herbicide (Liberty).
  • Black and white checkered: Tolerant to both dicamba, Engenia and Xtendimax, and glyphosate, Roundup Ready Xtend.
  • Red: Extreme caution required. Indicates conventional crops with no herbicide tolerant traits as well as sensitive production areas such as vegetables, vineyards, apiaries and organic production.

More information about “Flag the Technology” is at

Along with “Flag the Technology,” growers and applicators should register with the “Hit the Target” crop registry system. Once a grower registers with the site and enters their field information, registered applicators and other registered producers can view the location and flag color of registered fields, increasing opportunities for communication among growers and applicators.

More information about “Hit the Target” is at

“Applicators must be aware of sensitive areas and susceptible crops around dicamba or 2,4-D tolerant cotton fields and develop an application plan,” Dr. Pete Dotray, AgriLife Extension Weed Specialist in Lubbock, said. “When applying new dicamba formulations, applicators will need to document their efforts to identify sensitive areas and susceptible crops, which can be achieved by surveying the surroundings, visiting with neighbors about the crops they are growing, utilizing the concept of ‘Flag the Technology,’ and consulting with crop registries such as 'Hit the Target.'”

PCG Executive Vice President Steve Verett stressed the importance of communication about the usage of technology and on-target application.

“These new tools have proven extremely useful for growers, but it is absolutely critical that we do everything we can as growers to be good stewards of the technologies,” Verett said. “Our applications have to be on target to protect not only each other, but ultimately to protect our ability to utilize these technologies in the future.”

Texas A&M AgriLife Research director to step down June 1

DR TRAVIS MILLER left chats with Dr Craig Nessler director of Texas AampM AgriLife Research and Dr Steve Searcy head of the Texas AampM University department of biological and agricultural engineering at the recent Texas Plant Protection Associationrsquos annual conference in Bryan Texas
<p>DR. TRAVIS MILLER, left, chats with Dr. Craig Nessler, director of Texas A&amp;M AgriLife Research, and Dr. Steve Searcy, head of the Texas A&amp;M University department of biological and agricultural engineering, at a Texas Plant Protection Association&rsquo;s annual conference in Bryan, Texas</p>

Dr. Craig Nessler, director of Texas A&M AgriLife Research since 2009, will return as a faculty member in the department of horticultural sciences at Texas A&M University in College Station on June 1.

“We commend Dr. Nessler for his many contributions to the agricultural research enterprise during his time as director,” said Dr. Patrick Stover, vice chancellor and dean of agriculture and life sciences at Texas A&M.

Dr. Craig Nessler

“AgriLife Research simply has the best people anywhere and it’s been a pleasure to lead this great team and its statewide research activities that continue to make a difference in the daily lives of Texans and those across the nation,” Nessler said.

Texas A&M University System Chancellor John Sharp has appointed Stover as acting director of AgriLife Research.

“Looking forward, I am honored that Chancellor Sharp has appointed me as the acting director for AgriLife Research,” Stover said. “Continuing to advance the already outstanding work of the agency across the state is my top priority. I strongly believe our success is from the ground up — based upon the pioneering discoveries of our scientists — and I look forward to working alongside them.”

Stover highlighted many of Nessler’s leadership accomplishments, notably the agency’s five consecutive years of being ranked No. 1 in National Science Foundation agriculture expenditures for research.

Nessler also helped lead the agency in receiving Texas legislative funding for vector-borne diseases, which has enabled research in disease transmission. Other agency accomplishments under his leadership include corporate partnerships, intellectual property achievements and partnerships with Texas  A&M System universities, such as the mariculture and UAV programs with Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi.   

“He also initiated construction activities of the new Dallas Research and Extension Center in Dallas that will enable us to showcase our urban and rural outreach efforts in a way not done before,” Stover said.

Nessler was appointed director of AgriLife Research in 2009, coming to Texas A&M after serving five years as the director of the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station.

Is there a hay shortage where you farm?

Maria Cox Photo of round hay bales in field

We've had a lot going on the past couple of weeks at the farm. We finished up corn and soybean planting. Post-emergence corn spraying is done, and soon we will start soybean post-emergence spraying. But most of our attention recently has been on the hay crop. It’s the week after Memorial Day, and I don’t know how to describe what is going on with the local hay market.

If you follow the USDA hay reports, you have seen that May First dry hay stocks are down 36% from last year at this time. That's a huge decrease! I read that hay stocks are at the lowest since 2013, the year following the widespread drought. Even though the Illinois numbers looked a little better, I can feel a hay shortage even in our corner of the state.

Two trends point to shortage

I've sold all our cereal rye dry bales, plus booked most of our first cutting reeds canary grass. I've noticed a couple of things: 1) folks feeding hay in this area have zero bales left over from last year, and 2) customers are booking winter hay needs super early.

A lot of people ask me for prices of later cuttings, but it's hard to predict what the quality of later cuttings will be. All I can say, however, is that prices are firm and we are trying to bale as much good quality hay as we can to meet our customers' needs.

Even though state hay reports show prices per ton, it’s still hard to get some customers to buy hay by the ton. Some folks think that a round bale should cost X amount. Farmers don’t buy and sell corn by the truck load, they sell it by the bushel. It must be the same way for hay, even round bales.

Today’s tip

Word to the wise: someone will get the short end of the stick buying round bales by the bale. Big round bales can vary by hundreds of pounds per bale. I learned my lesson last year by buying hay by the bale that I thought weighed 1,400 lbs. per bale, but they ended up weighing 1,100 lbs. per bale.

I’ve made it my personal goal to convert all of our customers to buying by the ton. It’s the fairest way for both parties. It’s taking years to achieve this goal, but I’ll eventually get there.

For now, I’ll keep making hay.

The opinions of the author are not necessarily those of Farm Futures or Farm Progress.

Round balers for high-capacity baling

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Truckers strike and trade wars are back on marketer's minds


Soybean bulls continue to keep a close eye on the truckers strike in Brazil. There's also more rumors that truckers in Argentina are talking about making a similar play if not guaranteed a +27% hike in wages. Keep in mind, this simply allows the drivers in Argentina to keep pace with their surging rate of inflation.

Bears on the other hand are pointing to another twist in trade negotiations with the Chinese. In case you missed the latest audible, President Trump says he is again moving forward with imposing tariffs on $50 billion of Chinese imports.

Last week it seemed like a cease fire had been agreed upon, now this week the trade war is back in full-swing. From what I understand, the White House has set a June 15 deadline for specifying which Chinese goods — up to $50 billion worth — will be subject to a 25% tariff. Obviously, this has the trade worried about retaliatory measures by the Chinese and the very real potential they place tariffs on U.S. soybeans. Here at home, traders are still debating if more acres will be planted in 2018.

The USDA's most recent data showed about 77% of the U.S. crop as "planted" vs. the 5-year average of 62%. Keep in mind, top producing states like Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota and Nebraska are all running double-digits ahead of their traditional planting pace. In fact, I believe only Michigan and South Dakota are lagging their 5-year average.

The USDA also reported 47% of the crop is now "emerged" vs. the 5-year average of 32% by this date. In other words, the U.S. crop is off to a fairly strong start with perhaps an all-time number of acres in the ground. Record acres and a strong start to the season, along with continued uncertainty involving the worlds #1 buyer of soybeans, makes the trade believe there is adequate supply. 


Crops and cattle improve fruit tree nursery efficiency

Nick and Phillip Pelham
Nick Pelham, left, and his father, Philip, check peach tree seedlings they prepare for budding, which begins in June.

Phillip Pelham, president, Cumberland Valley Nurseries, says fruit trees are “the bread and butter” of the McMinnville, Tenn., operation, but the long rotation those trees require means either leaving land idle for years or finding other enterprises to fill in the gap between tree crops.

“If we own an acre of land, it needs to be making money for us,” Pelham said during a recent personal tour around the 600-plus acre farm in Warren County. Pelham and his son, Nicholas, vice president of the company, stop between two fields of widely-spaced rows of peach tree seedlings, about 4 inches tall and planted close together.

“We have about 1 million fruit trees on the farm,” Pelham says. Of those, 750,000 are peach trees, all hand-seeded last fall, and on this morning in early May being prepared for budding, which Pelham explains is an asexual reproduction process that creates a favorite variety on a different, but hardy rootstock.

Workers were moving down the rows, sitting in and pushing wheeled carts (covered on the top and three sides to provide shade), and removing suckers from the young plants. “We remove the suckers,” Pelham says, “to get ready to start budding in June.”

From seeding until plants are ready for sale to commercial orchards is a 13-month process. “We seed in October and take the trees out in November or December,” Pelham explains.

One in, seven out

After harvest, the field is removed from fruit tree production for seven years. “One in and seven out,” says Pelham. “It takes a lot of ground to rotate fruit trees.”

For a time, he left the land fallow between fruit tree plantings but decided that diversifying during those off years offered several benefits.

For one, he keeps the land productive with corn, soybeans and a cow/calf enterprise. He also keeps his labor force in place year-round. “We employ 16 full-time workers,” Pelham says, “not counting Nick and me and support staff.”

He uses the steepest land for cattle. “After we harvest fruit trees, we sow grass and put cattle on,” Pelham says.

“We have 193 calves, averaging 650 pounds, ready to go to market on Monday,” Nick said.

“Cattle got us into row crops,” Pelham added. “We started growing corn to feed the cows, but we market quite a bit, too.”

They added soybeans to the mix, and this year are planting 150 acres of corn and 450 acres of soybeans. A herd of 200 mama cows completes the enterprise mix.

Corn rotation

They like to plant corn behind the peach trees to take advantage of residual fertilizer. “We apply 1,400 pounds of fertilizer an acre to the peach trees,” Pelham says. That goes out in two applications, 700 pounds in the row when they plant and another 700 pounds side-dressed. “We plant soybeans behind the corn.”

They plant row crops no-till, except behind peach tree harvest. “We have to work that up and plant conventional,” Pelham said. They use cover crops on some row crop acreage, “where the soil is prone to wash.”

They don’t hedge on row crop management and expect soybean yields to top 50 bushels and corn to push above 170. “We made 180 to 190 bushels of corn last year,” Pelham says. “It’s a little hard to figure out exactly because we pull about 4,000 bushels green. I was a little disappointed in the soybeans, but we made 57.5 on LibertyLink varieties and 60 on Roundup Ready soybeans.” Those are dryland yields.

“We do have hose-reel irrigation capacity for the fruit trees, but we don’t use it unless we need to.”

 Herbicide cautions

They are careful about herbicide application and do not use 2,4-D at all. “We are careful with herbicides. Until they get a dicamba product that does not drift, we will not use it. Where we plant row crops close to our trees, we use LibertyLink varieties,” Pelham says. “We can spray Liberty within 10 or 15 feet of the trees and the trees will not suffer.

“We market peach trees all over the country, into every state except California, Arizona, Oregon and Washington,” Pelham said. State restrictions prevent shipping to those states and Canada.

“We also go all over the country collecting wood from orchards (for propagation with buds and grafts) to get the best varieties.”

They use three primary rootstocks, Guardian, Halford and MP-29, a new one they are working with that has resistance to oak root rot. “That’s a big problem in the Southeast,” Pelham said. Guardian is an industry favorite. “Halford is a reliable, cheap, economical rootstock.”

Cumberland Valley Nurseries produces about 250,000 fruit trees other than peach — apple, pear, cherries and a few others. Most of those go to more local markets, folks looking for trees to plant in backyards.

Apples and the other fruit trees are in the field for two years and are typically grafted instead of budded onto a sturdy rootstock.

“We get calls for some older apple varieties,” Pelham says.

 Diversification spreads risk

Nick says enterprise diversification spreads operation cash flow across multiple months instead of just one harvest period. “With row crops, we typically get paid in December. Tree revenue comes in February, March and April. We sell calves in May and June. The cattle market is up a bit now,” he said.

The row crop and cattle operations also offer work when activities in the trees drops off. “It takes a lot less labor to plant and harvest corn and soybeans than it does to manage fruit trees,” Pelham says. “But diversification allows us to keep employees on year-round and not lose them. Once we lose them, they might not come back.”

They plant row crops to fill in gaps between high fruit tree labor demand. “We plant group 3.7 to 4.2 soybeans and want to harvest by mid-November,” Nick says. “That’s when we get busy with trees.”

They want to be finished planting before June, when they push to get peach trees budded. “Certain times of the year, we have to be in the nursery,” Pelham says.

Diversification also offers risk management in case one enterprise has a bad year. That seldom happens with the fruit trees, they say. “But we had one bad year in 2007,” Nick recalls, “with a hard freeze.”

Pelham has been in the fruit tree business “since I got out of school. My wife and I started the nursery from scratch.” They merged into Cumberland Valley and bought out the last partner in 1998.

Nick says he’s been around the nursery since he was playing in the puddles at two years old and has worked here since he was 20. “I’ve never worked anywhere else. I’ve thought about doing something else a lot of times, but never enough to want to leave. Some months it’s better to be in the nursery than others, though.”

Fruit trees pay most of the bills for Cumberland Valley Nurseries. “The nursery got us into row crops and cattle,” Pelham says. And those enterprises are taking advantage of multiple resources, including land and labor.

“We are trying to be as efficient as we can with all our resources.”

Diversification spreads risk, aids fruit tree nursery

Nick Pelham says, at 650 pounds, these 193 calves are ready to go to market.

Phillip Pelham and his son Nick are determined that every acre they own should be making them money. That’s the rationale behind converting fallowed fruit tree acreage to pasture and row crops. Cumberland Valley Nurseries, Phillip says, started out as a nursery, but fruit tree best management calls for leaving land out of trees for seven years after harvesting seedlings.

They started by planting grass and building a cattle herd. “The cows got us into row crops,” Phillip says. They started growing corn to feed the cattle and added soybeans to further diversify. Diversification spreads risk, says Nick. It also allows them to maintain their labor force year-round and spread cash flow over several months.

Phillip has been in the fruit tree business “since I got out of school. My wife and I started the nursery from scratch.” They merged into Cumberland Valley and bought out the last partner in 1998.

Nick says he’s been around the nursery since he was playing in the puddles at two years old and has worked here since he was 20. “I’ve never worked anywhere else. I’ve thought about doing something else a lot of times, but never enough to want to leave. Some months it’s better to be in the nursery than others, though.”

 In early May, they were preparing peach tree seedlings for June budding and planting early maturity soybeans. Corn was planted and up to a good stand.

“We are trying to be as efficient as we can with all our resources.”


Corn planting 96% complete in Iowa

corn emerging in field
GOOD START: Iowa’s 2018 corn crop at end of May is 63% good and 19% excellent, based on USDA’s first-of-the-season crop condition rating.

Iowa farmers are winding up corn planting for 2018, with 96% of the crop in the ground as of May 27. They still had about 20% of the state’s soybean crop to plant, according to USDA’s latest weekly survey.

“The warm, dry weather this past week allowed many farmers to make significant progress, and now 96% of the state’s corn and 81% of soybeans have been planted. That is on pace or slightly ahead of the five-year average,” says Mike Naig, Iowa secretary of agriculture. “The high temperatures have created some stress for livestock, and farmers have been working hard to provide plenty of water and make sure their animals are as comfortable as possible.

U.S. corn 92% planted, soybeans 77%
Nationally, corn planting is 92% complete versus a 90% five-year average. The U.S. corn crop is rated 79% excellent. USDA’s latest weekly report pegs the U.S. soybean crop at 77% planted versus a 62% five-year average. USDA says soybean emergence is 47% versus a 32% five-year average.

The complete weekly Iowa Crop Progress and Weather Report is available on the Iowa Department of Ag and Land Stewardship website at or on USDA’s site at The report summary follows.

Crop report
A hot and dry week across much of Iowa allowed farmers 5.1 days suitable for fieldwork during the week ending May 27, according to USDA’s National Ag Statistics Service.

Topsoil moisture rated 3% very short, 12% short, 77% adequate and 8% surplus. Subsoil moisture rated 5% very short, 12% short, 74% adequate and 9% surplus. South-central Iowa continues to struggle with subsoil moisture supply availability with three-quarters rated short to very short.

Iowa’s corn 77% emerged
Iowa growers have planted 96% of the expected corn crop, with 77% of the crop emerged. Farmers in the northern one-third of the state were able to plant over 20% of their corn during the previous week, which leaves less than 10% still to be planted. Soybean growers have 81% of the expected crop planted, a week ahead of the five-year average. Across Iowa, 44% of soybeans have emerged, three days ahead of last year.

Nearly all the expected oat crop has been planted, one week behind average. Statewide, 95% of the crop has emerged, two days behind last year. And 4% of the oat crop has headed, four days behind both last year and the average.

Hay crop rated 65% good-to-excellent
Hay conditions improved slightly to 65% good-to-excellent. Pasture conditions also improved to 60% good-to-excellent. Warm temperatures and improved soil moisture levels strongly supported pasture and hay growth. Extreme temperatures resulted in reports of heat stress in cattle herds.

Weather summary
According to Michael Timlin, regional climatologist, Midwestern Regional Climate Center, temperatures were above normal across Iowa, while most of the state saw below-average rainfall during the week ending May 27.

Temperatures warmed through the week with maximum temps in the upper 50s and 60s early in the week and climbing to the 90s by the end of the week in all but the northeast corner of the state. Minimum temperatures climbed from the upper 40s and 50s to the 60s later in the week.

The coolest temperature recorded during the week was 47 degrees at Sibley on the May 21, while the warmest reading was 101 degrees at Red Oak on May 26. With the rising air temperatures, soil temperatures also rose from the upper 50s and 60s into the 70s by the end of the week.

Rainfall 200% of normal to less than 10%
Widespread rainfall on the May 21 gave way to scattered rain for the rest of the week. Severe weather on May 25 included strong winds and large hail. Wind reports over 60 mph and reports of trees and limbs downed along with large hail up to 2 inches in diameter came in from central to northeast Iowa.

Above-normal rainfall was reported at only some locations in the northeast third of the state, while totals were less than 0.20 inch for many locations in the southwest half of the state.

Viewed as a percentage of normal, the rainfall ranged from 200% of normal to less than 10% of normal. Highest rainfall total was recorded at Estherville in Emmet County with 2.67 inches, including 2.39 inches on May 23. The driest location was nearby at Primghar in O’Brien County, where no precipitation fell during the week.

China slams Trump's 'flip-flop' on tariffs

andriano_cz/iStock/GettyImages Conflict between USA and China, male fists

by Bloomberg News

China hit back at U.S. President Donald Trump’s plan to push ahead with tariffs on $50 billion of Chinese imports despite a recent truce in the trade fight, saying it damages America’s standing.

If the U.S. insists on unilateral measures, China will respond accordingly, foreign ministry spokeswoman Hua Chunying told reporters in Beijing on Wednesday. The White House said in a statement on Tuesday that a final list of imported goods to be targeted will be released by June 15, and levies imposed “shortly thereafter.” 

“Every flip-flop in international relations simply depletes a country’s credibility,” Hua said. Earlier, the Wall Street Journal reported that the trade talks between the two countries scheduled for June 2 in Beijing may be derailed by the fresh threat from Washington.

The announcement by Trump -- which seemed to tear up an agreement reached only 10 days ago in Washington -- is the latest twist in a trade dispute between the U.S. and China that has rattled financial markets for months and could threaten the broadest global upswing in years, according to the International Monetary Fund.

A team of U.S. officials was scheduled to arrive in Beijing on Wednesday to discuss the broad outline of the next round of talks, but if the two sides failed to reach agreement on what would be discussed, the trip -- led by Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross -- could be canceled, the Wall Street Journal report said.

Asian equities slid Wednesday as the renewed tension over trade added to concerns over Italy’s political turmoil for investors. 

While the trade dispute poses a risk to China’s economic outlook, the two countries will likely find common ground, said Robin Xing, chief China economist at Morgan Stanley. He expects China will buy an additional $60 billion to $90 billion of American goods over several years as it seeks to address Trump’s criticisms over the trade surplus.

“The two parties can reach a deal by China increasing imports,” Xing said Wednesday in a Bloomberg Television interview from Beijing. “De-escalation over time through negotiation remains our base case because we see areas where China and the U.S. can find some middle ground to make some mutually beneficial progress, for example to meet China’s own demand for upgrading consumption.”

Trump has vacillated in recent weeks on how hard to push Beijing over issues such as tariffs and intellectual property. The dispute began in March, when his administration first threatened to slap tariffs on as much as $50 billion in Chinese shipments to punish Beijing for violating American I.P. rights.

Trump is taking “measured” steps against China, aiming at protecting the “crown jewels” of American technology, White House trade adviser Peter Navarro told Fox Business’s “Mornings With Maria” program Wednesday. 

“We’re interested only in economic prosperity and national security,” Navarro said, adding that the U.S. slapping 25 percent tariffs on $50 billion of Chinese goods is bullish news for American companies and will be a “key part” of U.S. policy going forward. 

Trump’s latest u-turn was greeted with dismay in the Chinese state media, though pledges to retaliate were muted.

“The world faces an extremely mercurial White House administration,” an editorial in China’s Global Times tabloid read. “The Chinese government has the ability and wisdom to handle such situations.”

What Our Economists Say:

“With so many head-spinning reversals on trade from the U.S. in recent weeks, we suspect the Chinese negotiators and the markets have started to tune out the noise and focus on the substance,”  Tom Orlik, Bloomberg’s chief Asia economist in Beijing, wrote in a  report. “So far, there’s not much of that in evidence. Even if there were, our analysis suggests bilateral tariffs wouldn’t move the dial on China’s growth.”

After Trump’s initial tariff threat, Beijing promised to retaliate in kind to any duties. Trump then upped the ante, threatening to slap tariffs on an additional $100 billion in Chinese goods. But the U.S. has yet to publish a list of targeted products for the $100 billion, and the White House statement on Tuesday made no reference to the second potential tranche of duties. 

The U.S. tariffs threat has been widely opposed by industry leaders and some members of Congress. They warn the duties could end up raising costs for American consumers, devastating farmers and hurting other exporters if China proceeds with retaliatory duties.

U.S. Chamber of Commerce President Thomas Donohue said using tariffs against China “puts all the burden on American companies and consumers.” 

At the same time, Trump is under pressure from Congress to stay tough on China, especially when it comes to Chinese telecommunications-equipment maker ZTE Corp. Last week, the president said he would allow ZTE to stay in business if it pays a $1.3 billion fine, shakes up its management, and provides “high-level security guarantees.” 

China pressed the U.S. to give ZTE a break after the Commerce Department cut off the company from U.S. suppliers to punish it for allegedly lying to American officials in a sanctions case. Republican Senator Marco Rubio and other lawmakers from both parties have criticized Trump’s leniency toward ZTE, arguing that doing business with the company presents a risk to national security.

When Trump announced the initial plan to impose tariffs on Chinese goods, he also instructed the Treasury Department to draw up new curbs on investment in the U.S. by Chinese companies. The Treasury has presented its findings to the president, but its conclusions are yet to be made public.

The White House’s latest move signals the more hawkish wing of Trump’s trade team is trying to amplify its hard line, after Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin said this month that any talk of a trade war was suspended for now.

Mnuchin Repudiated

“Mnuchin’s ‘trade war on hold’ comments look to have been repudiated,” said Derek Scissors, a China analyst at the American Enterprise Institute in Washington. “It may be the administration has shifted somewhat to appease the Congress on the lifting of the ZTE sanctions.” 

The White House also said on Tuesday the U.S. plans to continue litigation at the World Trade Organization for China’s intellectual-property practices.

In a further indication of the Trump administration striking a tougher tone before the negotiations later this week, the White House issued a separate statement running through its major grievances over China’s trade practices from forced technology transfers to automobile import tariffs. 

--With assistance from Mark Niquette, Tom Mackenzie, Jeff Kearns and James Mayger.

To contact Bloomberg News staff for this story: Jenny Leonard in Washington at; Andrew Mayeda in Washington at; Dandan Li in Beijing at

To contact the editors responsible for this story: Brendan Murray at

Jeffrey Black, Emma O'Brien

© 2018 Bloomberg L.P