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Articles from 2014 In May

Grapes in the diet linked to improved eye health

Grapes in the diet linked to improved eye health

New research findings suggest that consistent grape consumption may help eye health by protecting the retina from deterioration.

Specifically, a grape-enriched diet protects retinal structure and function.

The retina has cells which respond to light, also known as photoreceptors which includes two types – rods and cones.

Retinal degenerative diseases impact more than five million people in the U.S. The maladies can result in blindness caused by photoreceptor cell death.

The study was conducted by a research team with the University of Miami, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute. The research investigated whether a diet supplemented with grapes could protect the photoreceptors in mice which have retinal degeneration.

Mice were fed a grape-supplemented diet corresponding to three servings of grapes per day for people, or one of two control diets.

The research findings were shared at the recent Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) conference in Orlando, Fla.

The research results suggest that retinal function was significantly protected in the mice consuming the grape-enriched diet. In fact, the grape-consuming rodent group had three times more rod and cone photoreceptor responses compared with those on the control diets.

The grape-fed mice also had thicker retinas.

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Retinal function

Grape consumption also protected retinal function in a form of macular degeneration. In addition, grape-fed mice had reduced levels of inflammatory proteins and higher amounts of protective proteins in the retinas.

“The grape-enriched diet provided substantial protection of retinal function which is very exciting,” said Abigail Hackam, the study’s lead investigator.

“It appears that grapes may work in multiple ways to promote eye health from signaling changes at the cellular level to directly countering oxidative stress,” Hackam said.

ARVO is the largest eye and vision research organization in the world representing members from more than 70 countries.


Field Day: Develop 'The Right Pasture Lease Agreement'

Field Day: Develop 'The Right Pasture Lease Agreement'

Good lease agreements are critical for many Nebraska ranches, considering more than 40% of the state's ag land is rented. Rand ranch operations frequently include both owned and rented ground.

"What's the going rate on grass?" is a common question. But there is more to grazing leases than just price.

"Developing the Right Pasture Lease Agreement" is the theme of a field day scheduled for June 24 at the Gudmundsen Sandhills Lab near Whitman. The hands-on field day will be supplemented by online webinars about pasture leasing.

Field Day Will Address How to Develop 'The Right Pasture Lease Agreement'

Pat Reece, retired UNL range ecologist and currently a consultant for Prairie & Montane Enterprises, will cover the "grass's side of the story," including what overgrazing looks like and how much grass pastures can produce. Reece will also share 30 years of experience on drought plans and successful leases.

Jerry Volesky, UNL Extension range specialist, has outdoor sessions on destocking clauses and grazing meadows, and will share data from double-grazed research conducted at GSL. UNL Extension educators Troy Walz, Jay Jenkins, and Bethany Johnston will discuss fair market value of forage, monitoring, and range health.

A panel of ranchers will take questions from the audience about leasing. The panel includes a widow who improved her upland bird habitat with rotational grazing and destocked during the drought; a rancher who leased ground that was later sold to him; and a beginning rancher who rents, leases, and bought rangeland from a neighbor.

The workshop is a chance to learn from top- notch speakers, discover range skills in outdoor sessions, and have access to online webinars to refresh your memory, as well as learn how to benefit the resources and benefit the relationship with the right pasture lease agreement.

Pre-registration is required by June 16 for a meal count. Contact the Central Sandhills Extension Office at 645-2267 or 1-800-657-2113. This event is sponsored by University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension and the World Wildlife Fund, which is striving to keep grasslands in grass.

NYCAMH Is Helping Dairy Farms Prep For OSHA Safety Inspections

NYCAMH Is Helping Dairy Farms Prep For OSHA Safety Inspections

In July, Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Region II Local Emphasis Program will begin random inspections of dairy farms in New York having 11 or more employees. To help farms prepare for them, the New York Center for Agricultural Medicine and Health is conducting on-farm inspections and safety training in an advisory capacity.

OSHA has identified 12 main focus areas referred to as the "dairy dozen". NYCAMH can assist in developing safety plans, programs, training or actions for each of these areas. All safety training sessions that NYCAMH delivers will be documented with a sign-in roster.

SAFETY CHECKING: NYCAMH offers "walk-through" assistance to help New York dairies prep to pass OSHA LEP inspections.

NYCAMH has created a LEP OSHA compliance manual and also a farm safety checklist which will assist farms in understanding OSHA safety regulations. And three informational webinars on what to expect can be viewed at

The 'dairy dozen' targeted
Here's a listing of the OSHA dairy dozen areas and ways that NYCAMH can assist:

Manure storage /collection structures: NYCAMH can examine these facilities and help develop a plan for structural protections, placement of warning signage and worker trainings that will keep people safe when working around them.

Animal behavior/worker handling: NYCAMH offers a variety of animal handling programs in both English and Spanish that educate workers on safe methods of working with livestock. NYCAMH will also look at potential physical hazards in animal handling areas such as barns, pens, holding areas, crowd gates and parlors and offer recommendations on improvements.

Electrical systems: NYCAMH will use the farm safety checklist to review common dangers from electrical systems including; open circuits, exposed wiring, improper use of extension cords, debris and supplies stored too close to electrical panels.

Skid loaders: NYCAMH offers free on farm skid loader trainings in both English and Spanish. The safety survey will include inspections of the skid loaders themselves to ensure all safety mechanisms are in place.

Tractor operation: As with skid loaders, NYCAMH offers free on farm tractor safety training sessions in both English and Spanish that meet the OSHA requirements for training as outlined in 1928 Subpart C Appendix A. The farm safety checklist will also record inspections of the tractors themselves to ensure all safety mechanisms are functioning properly.

New York farms are eligible to participate in the ROPS Retrofit Rebate Program paying 70% of the retrofit cost up to $865. For more information call the ROPS Rebate Hotline at: 1-877-767-7748, or visit:

PTO guarding: All PTO drivelines and PTO master shields must be in place. For many years NYCAMH has been providing low cost PTO shields to farmers, with individual shields available for as low as $59. NYCAMH provides training in English and Spanish on PTO safety.

Guarding of power transmission and components: Machinery will be examined to determine shielding requirements listed in sections of 1928.57. Grain dryers, augers, fans, gears, and other moving parts are required to have adequate shielding. NYCAMH provides training in English and Spanish on mechanical hazards.

Hazardous energy control: while servicing or maintaining equipment: NYCAMH staff can assist farms in identifying proper places to institute lockout and hazardous energy control procedures while servicing equipment, as well as training workers in the proper procedures.

Hazard chemical safety: NYCAMH staff will conduct free on-farm trainings to help your farm meet the Global Harmonized Standards (GHS) for hazard communication. NYCAMH can help develop written hazard communication programs and help improve or develop procedures for storage and retrieval of Safety Data Sheets for chemicals, plus help meet OSHA requirements for fit testing of respirators.

Confined space: Using the farm safety checklist, confined spaces will be examined to determine appropriate procedures for worker safety. NYCAMH will make recommendations for structural improvements which reduce access plus proper warning signs, and can conduct awareness level worker trainings on proper procedures when working in and around confined spaces.

Horizontal bunker silos: NYCAMH staff will assist farms in developing and utilizing safety procedures and equipment that make working around bunk silos safer.

Noise: NYCAMH staff can help evaluate noise levels to determine appropriate engineering changes or appropriate situations for workers to use hearing protection. Choices range from full earmuffs to disposable foam earplugs.

For more information, call NYCAMH at (800) 343-7527.

Some Soybean Varieties Can Be Damaged By Soil Residual Insecticides

Some Soybean Varieties Can Be Damaged By Soil Residual Insecticides

By Aaron Hager

Editor's note: This article is from the University of Illinois' The Bulletin. For the complete article, which includes photos and additional information, click here. Hager is a weed scientist with U of I.

Integrated weed management programs offer the greatest potential for long-term, sustainable solutions to weed populations demonstrating resistance to herbicides from multiple families. 

Some Soybean Varieties Can Be Damaged By Soil Residual Insecticides

Soil-residual herbicides are important components of integrated weed management programs and provide several benefits, including reducing the intensity of selection for resistance to foliar-applied herbicides.  Recent survey data indicate the percentage of Illinois soybean acres treated with soil-residual herbicides has increased during the past few years.

In the vast majority of instances, soil-applied herbicides control target weed species with little to no adverse effect on the crop.  However, soybean plants sometimes are injured by these herbicides. Questions about soybean injury caused by soil-applied herbicides recently have been posed, so this article will review some of the factors that can contribute to herbicide-induced soybean injury.

Herbicides vary in their inherent potential to cause soybean injury.  Many university-generated herbicide effectiveness rating tables also provide estimates of soybean injury potential.  Some herbicide active ingredients, such as cloransulam and clomazone, are often rated as having very low potential to cause soybean injury, whereas other active ingredients are rated as having a greater inherent potential to cause injury.  The rate at which the herbicide is applied can influence the potential for soybean injury by increasing or decreasing the amount of herbicide in a given volume of soil.

Most cultivars are not overly sensitive to any particular herbicide, but other soybean cultivars can vary in their sensitivity to certain herbicides.  Data in the scientific literature and company-generated variety trials demonstrate cultivar sensitivity differences to various soil-residual herbicides.  Some cultivars demonstrate sensitivity to one active ingredient, whereas other cultivars can be sensitive to more than one active ingredient.

The environment has a large influence on the severity of soybean injury caused by soil-applied herbicides.  Environment-induced crop stress, often caused by cool, wet soil conditions, can enhance soybean injury from soil-applied herbicides. 

In most cases, herbicide selectivity arises from the soybean plant's ability to rapidly metabolize the herbicide to a nonphytotoxic form before it causes much visible injury.  Soybean plants growing under favorable conditions are able to adequately metabolize the herbicide before any injury symptoms are expressed. 

However, when the soybean plant is under stress, its ability to metabolize the herbicide can be sufficiently reduced to the point at which injury symptoms develop.

Soil physical properties can increase or decrease the potential for soybean injury by impacting how much herbicide is available for plant uptake.  Soils with higher amounts of clay and organic matter have a greater ability to adsorb more herbicide onto these soil colloids.  Herbicide bound to soil colloids is not available for plant uptake. 

In contrast, coarse-textured soils have less adsorptive capacity so more herbicide remains available for plant uptake.  Labels of soil-applied herbicides often contain precautionary language about the increased potential for soybean injury when the product is applied to sandy soils or soils low in organic matter.

The application timing of soil-residual herbicides also can impact the potential for soybean injury.  Applications made immediately before or after soybean planting result in a high concentration of herbicide near the emerging soybean plants.  In contrast, a herbicide is often more widely distributed within the soil profile by the time of soybean emergence when applications are made several days or weeks prior to planting.

The soil-applied PPO-inhibiting herbicides, including saflufenacil, flumioxazin, and sulfentrazone, are very effective for control of Amaranthus species.  These herbicides (and many others) also can cause soybean injury. 

Our first experience with soybean injury from soil-applied PPO inhibitors occurred in 1996 while evaluating sulfentrazone for control of herbicide-resistant waterhemp.  Soybean injury symptoms caused by these soil-applied herbicides can vary depending on the soybean developmental stage when exposure occurred.  The most commonly encountered injury symptoms occur on the hypocotyl and cotyledons, often indicating the plants were exposed to a high concentration of herbicide as they were emerging.

There likely is no solitary reason for the recent instances of soybean injury from soil-applied PPO-inhibiting herbicides.  As previously mentioned, our first experience with this type of soybean injury occurred almost 20 years ago and we have continued to observe this type of injury intermittently ever since. 

These herbicides have become very popular choices for the management of herbicide-resistant Amaranthus populations, and widespread application of these herbicides increases the probability of encountering soybean cultivars that inherently are more sensitive to one or more of these herbicides.  In many instances of soybean injury, the herbicide was applied after soybean fields were planted and a precipitation event occurred within a few days of soybean emergence.  Cool air and soil temperatures during the same interval can further increase injury potential by slowing the rate of herbicide metabolism. 

A crusted soil surface can slow soybean emergence, increasing the time the hypocotyl and cotyledons remain in the zone of high herbicide concentration.  Once the herbicide is moved deeper into the soil profile, the potential to cause additional injury is greatly reduced

Scout Now For Tan Spot

Scout Now For Tan Spot

Similar to the late spring of 2013, this season farmers are starting to see small grains diseases in their fields, reports Madeline Smith, University of Minnesota assistant professor of small grains & canola pathology. Smith made her observations in a recent blog post, noting that tan spot is showing up on wheat and barley around the state.

Scout Now For Tan Spot

Tan spot is identifiable by the brown spots that are usually surrounded by a yellow halo. The spots run together to form larger patches of yellowing and browning. Initial infections in young seedlings often result in yellowing of leaf tips as the seedlings react to the toxins produced by this fungus, she said. Tan spot will be particularly prevalent on previous wheat ground.

Be careful not to mistake it for nitrogen deficiency or symptoms of BYDV for tan spot, she said.

Scouting is really key with these diseases and results in early detection. As tan spot can go through multiple infection cycles in a season, it is important to control it as soon as it is identified. If left unchecked, this disease will continue to progress and may impact yield, Smith said.

If you do see tan spot, you can use a tank mix of herbicide and fungicide to control this disease. With the young crop, U-M recommends using half the labeled rate of products containing active ingredients such as propiconazole (e.g. Tilt). This is because there is less biomass at this stage for the fungicide to cover. After application of fungicide, the lesions of tan spot will not disappear, but the fungus in these lesions will have been killed off. It is important to keep scouting new growth in fields to determine if new infections are occurring. If so, an application of fungicide later in the season may be necessary.

A number of different fungicides can be used for control of this disease. Here is a link to the current fungicide efficacy table for small grains. Always remember to follow current labeling instructions for use.

Smith said that Extension researchers are interested in collecting isolates of tan spot.

If you find any, please contact Smith at before you spray so a sample may be collected.

Web Tool Helps Forecast Wheat Scab

Web Tool Helps Forecast Wheat Scab

Fusarium head blight, also called head scab, is of particular concern for growers now as wheat heads are most susceptible to the scab fungus during flowering, and infection is favored by warm, wet or humid conditions, according to Pierce Paul, Ohio State University Extension plant pathologist.

Much of the state has experienced cooler conditions this week, thus reducing the risk of head scab for wheat flowering, he says. 

"But many fields are likely to reach the flowering stage within the next two weeks, when temperatures are forecast to rise, which could increase the risk for scab," he says. "The risk increases especially if it rains."

Web Tool Helps Forecast Wheat Scab

Scab is the most economically important wheat disease in Ohio because it affects wheat in multiple ways, Paul says.

"Scab can cause vomitoxin contamination of the grain, making the grain unfit for marketing and unfit for human or animal consumption," he says. "It infects wheat spikes during the time of flowering, which in Ohio is likely to occur next week and the week after, depending on the variety and when the field was planted."

To assess the risk for scab and to determine whether a fungicide application at flowering is warranted for scab control, growers should use the Fusarium Risk Assessment Tool available at the Fusarium Head Blight Prediction Center website,

"Growers should use the forecasting system to make management decisions because you can't scout for this disease, because by the time you see the disease, it's too late to manage," he says. "Scab is a sporadic and dangerous disease that doesn't occur every year. That's why this is a good tool to use, because if you don't catch scab in time, it can devastate a crop."

Growers can experience a 50% or more crop loss even if they have only 10-15% of scab in their fields because more than 2 parts per million vomitoxin in the grain could cause the grain to be rejected."

The scab forecasting system uses temperatures and relative humidity conditions up to flowering to calculate scab risk, helping growers determine whether there is a high, moderate or low risk for the disease.

To use the system, growers need to select wheat type (winter) and their flowering date, which is the day when anthers are first seen sticking out of the heads. Color patterns across Ohio and neighboring states will then indicate the level of risk in the region for the flowering date selected.

Red indicates a high risk, followed by yellow for moderate risk and green for low risk.

"Growers should keep their eye on the scab forecasting system, which is still the best way to forecast risk," he says. "If the forecasting system indicates that the risk is moderate to high, then you should apply fungicide."

To control this disease, growers need to apply either Prosaro or Caramba fungicides at flowering, Paul says.

"Fungicides are most effective against scab and vomitoxin when applied at flowering," he says. "If rain or something else prevents applications from being made at flowering, applications made up to 6 days after flowering will still reduce scab and vomitoxin.

"However, earlier applications (before flowering) tend to be less effective at suppressing scab and vomitoxin than applications made at flowering or a few days after."

Source: OSU Extension.

National Dairy Shrine Announces 2014 Award Winners

National Dairy Shrine Announces 2014 Award Winners

National Dairy Shrine is pleased to announce the winners of the Guest of Honor, Distinguished Dairy Cattle Breeder, Pioneer, Progressive Dairy Manager and Graduate Dairy Production awards for this year. These awards were designed to honor past, present and future dairy industry leaders that have contributed to strengthening and energizing the dairy industry.

National Dairy Shrine Announces 2014 Award Winners

Bernard Heisner is the Guest of Honor, the highest award from the National Dairy Shrine. This award goes to an individual that has had a dramatic impact on the dairy industry and its future. Bernard "Bernie" Heisner, the General Manager of COBA/Select Sires has had a preeminent role in dairy industry not only for his company but for many allied industry organizations. During his over 20 year association with COBA, the company has grown to over 24 million dollars in sales and 130+ full time employees. COBA offices have also been utilized by the American Guernsey Association, Ayrshire Breeders Association, DHI Cooperative, Inc., Purebred Publishing and National Dairy Shrine as headquarters over the years. Bernie has served the industry in many roles and shared his communication and writing skills with numerous dairy groups. Heisner has previously received recognition from the Ohio State Fair, Ohio 4-H Leadership Award, Ohio PDCA, The Ohio State University Dairy Service Award, Red & White Dairy Cattle Association and the National Dairy Shrine 4-E Award. Bernie Heisner has truly shaped the future of the dairy industry with his great passion for dairy people and cows.  

The NDS Distinguished Dairy Cattle Breeder is the Paul Chittenden Family from Schodack Landing, N.Y. The Chittenden Jersey herd carries the Dutch Hollow prefix and is known worldwide for producing high quality genetics and cattle with the popular polled gene. Paul Chittenden has served on the national AJCA board (4 Years as president) and numerous committees. The Dutch Hollow herd has been innovative in the marketing of its' milk through various sources and has also created the Dutch Hollow Education Center for hands on learning experiences for pre-school and elementary school groups. Paul and Melanie's children Brian, Alan and Nathan and their families are all heavily involved in the next generation of Dutch Hollow Farm and national and state Jersey activities.

National Dairy Shrine Pioneers
Through an anonymous selection committee, Alton Block, David Gibson, Charles Knigge, Marlowe Nelson and Russell Wirt have been selected as National Dairy Shrine Pioneers. This year's honorees are an exemplary display of what this award is about. Alton Block, Middleton, Wis., was a well respected A.I. industry leader who served as the general manager of East Central Breeders Co-op and Tri-State Breeders Co-op. In his later years he was a successful business and management consultant.

David Gibson, Brandon, Vt., served as the executive secretary of the Ayrshire Breeders Association for over 18 years. Many technical office upgrades, and breed improvement programs were started under his leadership. Mr. Gibson also served as Secretary for the World Ayrshire Breed Society.

Charles "Pete" Knigge, Omro, Wis., is a dairy producer and innovator. His dairy made the historical and potentially risky decision to be the first herd in the United States to milk cows with robots. The Knigge dairy was one of the few dairies in the world to use at that time the untested technologies of robotic milking with freestall housing and TMR feeding. .Mr. Knigge has also served a leadership role in numerous state and local dairy and civic organizations. 

Marlowe Nelson, Viroqua, Wis., has been an innovator in breeding and the international dairy industry. After developing personal relationships with dairy farmers in Japan while stationed there in WW II, Marlowe developed in 1953 a dairy training program for Japanese students on Wisconsin dairy farms. This highly successful initiative led to other similar programs with German and Dutch trainees. For his outstanding contributions Marlowe was awarded the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun, Gold Rays with Rosette by the Emperor of Japan.  Marlowe also spent many years in the A.I. industry in sire procurement for U.S. and International companies, buying some of the top sires in the world. Mr. Nelson then started his own breeding company International Protein Sires in 1990.

Russell Wirt from Lewiston, Minn., is the final 2014 Pioneer award winner. Wirt has a distinguished career as a breeder and dairy industry leader. Russell served as president of the American Guernsey Association for 5 years from 1979-1984. He helped form the Minnesota DHIA and the Minnesota American Dairy Association.  Wirt was also president of the Minnesota Livestock Breeder's Association. The family farm is now be operated by his children and the 500 cows average over 30,000 pounds of milk. Wirt has been previously honored by the American Guernsey Association with its' Distinguished Service Award and by World Dairy Expo with its' Person of the Year award.

The NDS Progressive Dairy Producers selected for this year are Amanda Stiles Lutz in the small herd division and Peter Dueppengeiser in the large herd division. This award is a $2,000 travel stipend to attend an out of state conference or seminar to learn new techniques to improve their dairy business. Amanda Stiles Lutz has an excellent herd of Jerseys in Chester, S.C.  Amanda and her husband Herby are very involved in the dairy community. Both have had leadership positions in national, state and county breed associations. In addition she has been very active in dairy promotion groups and the South Carolina Young Farmers Association. The herd is especially proud of its' high production with very low cell counts. Peter Dueppengeiser operates Dueppengeiser Dairy Company LLC in Perry, N.Y., Peter and his brother Michael manage a Holstein dairy that milks 1,200 cows. Dueppengeiser has been very active in the Northeast Dairy Producers Association, the New York Farm Bureau, Wyoming Chamber of Commerce, Straightlers 4-H Club, and Cornell University. This herd has participated with Cornell staff on numerous research projects and Peter is an advisor to the Pro-Dairy program. The Dueppengeiser family takes great pride in being named a Dairy of Distinction for 22 years.

 Luke Huysman of DeRuyter, N.Y., has been selected as the Graduate Dairy Production award winner. This award goes to an active dairyman who has graduated from college in the last nine years and has already demonstrated excellent dairy management ability and financial stability. Luke, a non farm boy, became enthralled with the dairy industry by working on local dairies in the summer and soon decided on a dairy future. While still attending high school he enrolled at SUNY Morrisville in the dairy program. Then he enrolled at Cornell University and graduated in 2006. During his college years he found time around classes to work 40-45 hours a week at local dairies. After graduation, he went to work as a dairy farm manager at Hermdale Farms in Seneca Castle, New York and started acquiring his own herd. In 2008 with the help Chip Engst of Barbland Farm and friend Bret Bossard they formed Barbland Dairy LLC a 500+ dairy in Fabius, N.Y. In 2010 they further expanded their dairy operations. Huysman will receive a $2,500 award sponsored by Elanco to be used toward the purchase of cattle to improve his herd.

The annual National Dairy Shrine awards banquet will be held on Thursday, Oct. 2 in Madison during World Dairy Expo. For more information about the banquet or about students, producers and industry representatives being recognized by National Dairy Shrine, please contact Dr. David Selner, executive director, at Information on the National Dairy Shrine mission or membership is also available online at Dairy enthusiasts are encouraged to become a part of the most important organization honoring our dairy heritage, inspiring future leaders and promoting the dairy industry.

Source: National Dairy Shrine

Calves For Kids

Calves For Kids

Corne and Conny Van Bedaf, Carrington, N.D., don’t just talk about promoting agriculture. They walk the walk.

They lease dairy calves to 4-H kids to show at the county fair. The Bedafs keep the calves in their heifer barn on their farm and feed them. The kids come almost daily to train and groom their calves for the show. The rent is a token $25 per head and is designed to give the kids a sense of ownership in the calf. A few days before the fair, the Bedafs move the heifers to the cattle barn on the fairgrounds and supply the feed the calves will need during the fair. The kids feed the calves during the fair.

Brittany Aasand is eager to find her show calf for 2014.

“It’s a great program,” says Joel Lemer, Foster County Extension educator. “We wouldn’t have a 4-H dairy show without it.”

The dozen youths renting calves this year live in towns and on acreages or grain farms and don’t have the space or facilities to keep a calf.

It’s a wonderful opportunity my daughters to get some experience with large animals,” says Greg Endres, North Dakota State University Extension area agronomist, Carrington, who has two daughters participating this year.

It’s good for the dairy, too. The Bedafs moved to Carrington from Canada in 2008 and faced some vocal opposition when they applied for a permit to build a 1,000-cow dairy three miles outside of town. In a state where most dairies have about 100-cows, some community members were worried about the size of the dairy and the impact it could have on the environment and even the town. Those concerns have since faded.

“We like supporting the community,” Conny says. “It is a good place to live and work.”

It’s also rewarding to be around 4-H kids.

“We love our cows,” she says, “It is fun to see others come to love them, too.”

Foster County has a similar program for sheep, but the sheep are housed at the county fairgrounds..

LSU AgCenter Rice Disease Newsletter - May 28, 2014

Don Groth answers "10 questions I should ask before applying a fungicide to my rice"