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Articles from 2015 In October

Pomegranate fruit on the tree
<p>Pomegranate fruit on the tree.</p>

Research touts high frequency SDI in pomegranates


A 3.5 acre pomegranate orchard at the Kearney Ag Center in Parlier, Calif. has borne more fruit than the big red orbs that pull branches downward and reflect the sun falling on them.

By studying what has gone on there for six years using a lysimeter and other complex equipment to measure water loss and nutrient applications, researchers can point to decided advantages of high frequency subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) over high frequency surface drip.

U.S. Department of Agriculture researcher James Ayars said he and others made these and other findings in a study on improving pomegranate fertigation and nitrogen use efficiency in which both systems of irrigation were used:

  • The SDI system minimized nitrate leaching;
  • SDI showed higher nitrogen use efficiency than drip;
  • SDI used water more efficiently than drip;
  • SDI resulted in lower weed populations than drip; and
  • The two systems showed no significant differences in fruit and juice quality.

The overall objective of research was to optimize water-nitrogen interactions to improve fertilizer use efficiency of young and maturing pomegranate trees.

Other objectives were aimed at determining the real time seasonal nitrogen requirements without reducing yields. Three nitrogen injection treatments were followed:  a 50 percent level, 100 percent, and 150 percent.

Another goal was determining if concentrations of macronutrients (phosphorous, potassium, calcium, and magnesium) and micronutrients (zinc, copper, manganese, iron, boron, and selenium) in the soil, peel, and fruit were influenced by precise irrigation and fertigation management.

Claude Phene, an irrigation and soil physics consultant from Clovis, played a significant role in guiding the six-year research effort.

Lysimeter use

It started with the first two years spent installing monitoring and control equipment, establishing the trees and working out problems with the operation of the fertilizer injection equipment, and the operation of the lysimeter.

During the field day, Phene opened the cover of the lysimeter, brushed away some cobwebs and invited anyone who wanted to climb down a ladder leading about 12 feet to the bottom.

There were no takers.

The 82-year Phene, who retired from the USDA after serving as director of the Water Management Research Laboratory in the region, has climbed down into the lysimeter to check instruments about a dozen times a year since the project started.

'Truck scale'

Phene said the lysimeter is one of very few in the state. Essentially a truck scale, it reads weight loss that shows evaporation and drainage.

“In the past five years, it has shown no leaching,” Phene said, adding that – given it is home to a single tree watered in an area just under half the size of areas that harbor other trees – “that means there was no leaching for the other trees.”

Leaching has taken on greater significance as the state moves to cut down on the amount of nitrates leaching through the soil and into the underground water supply, Phene said.

The lysimeter, which has eight soil moisture sensors at various depths, traces evaporation to within a fraction of a millimeter, Phene said. He had a hand in its installation in 1986.

All drip lines – subsurface as well as surface – were placed within 3 and 3.5 feet of each side of trees. Subsurface drip was placed 20-22 inches underground.

Among researcher’s findings was the fact that watering frequently is more effective than watering for long periods because it cuts down on “gravitational water loss,” Phene said.

Water's matric potential

He believes it is important for growers to understand “matric potential of soil water,” the movement of water within the soil and the differences between gravitational force (whereby water moves downward) and capillary force (in which water moves upward, downward, and to both sides).

To combat salinity, Phene said growers should be wary of putting on the cheapest source of potassium - potassium chloride. “It adds to salinity,” he said.

It is better, he added, to use potassium chloride or potassium thiosulfate.

Phene is also wary of recycling water.

“Every time you do that, you lose quality,” he said. “If you recycle four or five times, salts go up four or five times.”

Better solution

A better solution on salinity, he explained, is to minimize the amount of water put into the soil.

“If you put in twice as much, you get twice as much salt,” he said. “Also, watch what kind of fertilizer you are putting into the soil.”

About 35 inches of water was applied through surface drip on the plot, 32 inches through subsurface.

Surface drip more vulnerable

Phene said among challenges of using surface drip is that it’s more vulnerable to damage that can come when equipment passes over it or when gophers, squirrels, and other critters chew on it.

For the latest on western agriculture, please check out Western Farm Press Daily and receive the latest news right to your inbox.

Over the six years for the project, precipitation in inches has dropped significantly, from 17.34 inches in 2010 to 3.7 inches by mid-October 2015. In 2013, precipitation was still lower at 3.21 inches.

Paramount Farming Company, which provided trees for the research plot, was among the contributors for the project.

Dennis McCoy, a research specialist for Wonderful Orchards in Shafter, which grows pomegranates for Paramount, which recently rebranded itself as The Wonderful Company, said he was impressed with the precision of the systematic measurements of fertilizer and water applied at the test plot.


Higher ethanol fuel blends goal for $1.3 million grant

Higher ethanol fuel blends goal for $1.3 million grant

Ethanol promoters have been pushing against the "blend wall" for the past several years, arguing that the future growth of the industry hinges on getting past the 10% ceiling on ethanol fuel blends.

Now, a new federal initiative to increase the number of blender pump stations across the country.

Kansas will receive $1.3 million in federal matching funds for the Kansas Better Blends Initiative, a program to increase the availability of ethanol blended fuels to Kansas motorists.

Kansas is one of 21 states to receive USDA funding from the Biofuel Infrastructure Partnership that provides matching funds to expand infrastructure to move more ethanol into our nation's fuel supply.

MORE COMING: A $1.3 million grant will help bring more blender pumps to Kansas.

Kansas Corn Commission worked with the Kansas Department of Agriculture to write and submit a proposal for the BIP grant to support KBBI's efforts to enhance the availability of higher blends of ethanol in Kansas.

The Kansas Better Blends Initiative was created by the Kansas Corn Commission along with Renew Kansas, which represents the state's ethanol processors. KBBI partners also include the Kansas Grain Sorghum Commission, United Sorghum Checkoff Program and ICM, Inc. 

KDA will administer the grant and will contract with the Kansas Corn Commission to implement this program.

"This is an excellent opportunity to give Kansas motorists more choices at the pump and increase the availability and use of our home-grown, clean ethanol fuel," Kansas Corn CEO Greg Krissek said. "Our groups behind KBBI have made a significant commitment to provide matching funds and in-kind services to bring more fuel choices to Kansas drivers."

The next step is to reach out to fuel retailers across the state of Kansas to help them understand the opportunity for financial assistance for adding blender pumps to their stations.

"We have already identified several fuel retailers who are interested in the program, and plan to speak to more retailers about this opportunity," Krissek said. "The effort will target high-volume retailers and those in high-traffic, high-visibility areas."

The Kansas Better Blends Initiative will provide awards that cover 90 percent of the cost of installation for blender pumps and 75 percent of the cost of E15 pumps that will provide higher-blend ethanol products.

All gas-powered vehicles can operate on E10, a blend of 10 percent ethanol fuel that makes up most of the nation's fuel supply. Vehicles model year 2001 and newer can use E15, comprised of 15 percent ethanol fuel. Flexible Fuel Vehicles can operate on any combination of ethanol and gasoline up to 85 percent ethanol.

In May 2015, USDA announced the availability of $100 million in grants through the BIP, and that to apply states and private partners match the federal funding by a 1:1 ratio. With the matching commitments by state and private entities, the BIP is investing a total of $210 million to strengthen the rural economy.

"This major investment in renewable energy infrastructure will give Americans more options that not only will suit their pocketbooks, but also will reduce our country's environmental impact and bolster our rural economy," said Vilsack.

"The Biofuel Infrastructure Partnership is one more example of how federal funds can be leveraged by state and private partners to deliver better and farther reaching outcomes for taxpayers. The volume and diverse geographic locations of partners willing to support this infrastructure demonstrate the demand across the country for lower cost, cleaner, American-made fuels. Consumers will begin to see more of these pumps in a matter of months."

For more information on the Kansas Better Blends Initiative, contact the Kansas Corn Commission at 785-448-6922.

Students bring &quot;ag-citement&quot; to InSight Performance Center

Students bring "ag-citement" to InSight Performance Center

DNA Genetics recently hosted 40 East Butler Public School students and teachers for a tour of the InSight Performance Center. The 5th and 6th grade students are taking part in an agricultural learning program called "Ag-citement in the Classroom".

This program at East Butler covers 10 different learning units over a two-year period, each unit focusing on a different commodity or aspect of agriculture. This year, the students are covering pork production and a tour of InSight Performance Center provided an opportunity to see pork production taking place.

AG IN THE CLASSROOM: East Butler students gather in front of the InSight Performance Center, where they got a unique look at pork production.

"We come from an ag area, but our students don't always realize the impact agriculture has on them and the world around them," said Patti Romshek, a 5th and 6th grade teacher at East Butler's elementary school in Dwight, Nebraska. "We're very fortunate our administration and school board allows us to have this program."

Teachers like Romshek put together the materials for the "Ag-citement in the Classroom" program with the involvement of local farmers/producers and organizations such as: Frontier Coop, Farm Bureau, Nebraska Beef Council, Nebraska Soybean Board, and the Nebraska Pork Producers Association.

While at the InSight Performance Center, students were able to see DNA Genetics team members completing the off-test process of boars, which includes a live ultrasound of each boar to measure the animal's backfat and loin depth. They also saw the advanced technology used at the InSight Performance Center like Feed Intake Recording Equipment (FIRE feeders). In the center's bio-secure observatory conference room, students got a unique look at pork production not many get the opportunity to see.

The school's purpose statement is: "East Butler Public Schools, in cooperation with the communities we serve, will inspire students to become responsible, creative, and innovative citizens in the ever-changing world." According to a DNA Genetics press release, this purpose tied in well to the tour presentation, which points out the world's growing population, the increasing demand for food, and the ways DNA Genetics is advancing genetic improvement in the pork industry.

Source: DNA Genetics

Winter weeds: Control or not to control?

Winter weeds: Control or not to control?

It is important for growers to decide now if they want to apply a herbicide. The following FAQs about winter weeds can help growers make a decision.

1. What winter weeds should growers watch for?

The most common winter weeds in Nebraska are marestail, henbit, field pennycress, prickly lettuce, shepherd's purse, downy brome, tansy mustard, and dandelion.

2. Is a fall herbicide application needed?

Not necessarily. Herbicide timing to achieve the most effective control varies with the weed species present. Field scouting (see this Crop Watch article) and weed identification (see EC 304) are important. For example, if you see a lot of marestail, a fall herbicide application is needed.

WEED TO WATCH FOR: Marestail growing in a field in summer. Marestail is a significant problem weed in Nebraska. Most marestail in Nebraska is resistant to glyphosate and the ALS group of herbicides and is challenging to control with only a glyphosate burndown program.

3. Why focus on marestail?

Marestail is a significant problem weed in Nebraska. Most marestail in Nebraska is resistant to glyphosate and the ALS group of herbicides and is challenging to control with only a glyphosate burndown program. A recent survey reported that more than 2 million acres in Nebraska is infested with resistant marestail.

4. Why do you think a fall herbicide treatment is important in controlling glyphosate-resistant marestail?

Marestail can emerge in the fall and in the spring. However, most marestail in Nebraska is fall emerging and more effectively controlled then when it's in a seedling stage.

5. What do growers risk if they don't use a fall herbicide treatment to control glyphosate-resistant marestail?

Growers can choose an early spring application of herbicides; however, sometimes early spring weather is not very cooperative. For example, this year, early spring was too wet and growers couldn't apply early spring burndown herbicide applications. In fact, pre-emergence herbicides also were not applied due to wet fields, leaving post-emergence herbicide applications as the only option to control marestail. By then, the marestail was too tall to be effectively controlled. Additionally, options for effective post-emergence herbicides are limited (see this Crop Watch Article).

Variable response has been observed with early spring application of herbicides for marestail control. Some biennials and cool season perennials, including dandelion, wild carrot, and poison hamlock, also can be controlled more effectively with fall herbicide application.

6. When to control winter weeds?

UNL research has shown that most fall emergence was completed by early November, thus, targeting herbicide applications from late October to mid November would be important. Younger weeds tend to be more susceptible to herbicide treatments than those at an advanced growth stage.

7. What herbicides to consider?

Several herbicide tank-mix options are available for control of most winter annual weeds. Consult pages 61 (corn) and 105 (soybeans) of the 2015 Guide for Weed Management in Nebraska (EC 130) for effective options. Read this Crop Watch Article.

For additional information, contact Amit Jhala, Extension Weed Management Specialist, at

Source: UNL CropWatch

Nebraska Extension to hold post-harvest grain marketing workshops

Nebraska Extension to hold post-harvest grain marketing workshops

Nebraska Extension post-harvest grain marketing workshops will be offered at 10 sites across Nebraska in November and December to assist grain producers in creating a written post-harvest marketing plan that is right for them.

Nebraska Extension educators will present location- and commodity-specific marketing information. Topics include developing a written marketing plan, and understanding basis and carrying charges. The workshops feature the Marketing in a New Era simulator and Decide NOW smartphone app.

TIMELY TOPICS: Nebraska Extension educators will present location- and commodity-specific marketing information. Topics will include developing a written marketing plan, and understanding basis and carrying charges. The workshops feature the Marketing in a New Era simulator and Decide NOW smartphone app.

Register by visiting or calling the number below for the desired location. Each workshop will begin at 9:30 a.m. and end at 3 p.m. Workshops are limited to 40 participants. 

Workshops are funded by the Nebraska Soybean Board, Nebraska Corn Board, North Central Extension Risk Management Education Center, USDA-NIFA and Nebraska Extension Innovation Funding.

For more information or assistance, contact Jessica Groskopf, Nebraska Extension educator, at 308-632-1247 or

Workshop locations:

• Nov. 5 in Ogallala at the Arterburn Youth Cabin, 305 W. 10th St., Michael Eskelson, 308-284-6051

• Nov. 17 in Holdrege at the Phelps County Extension Office, 1308 Second St., Todd Whitney, 308-995-4222

• Nov. 18 in Hastings at the Adams County Fairgrounds, 947 S. Baltimore Ave., Ron Seymour, 402-461-7209

• Nov. 24 in Davenport at the Little Blue Natural Resources District, 106 N. Juniper Ave., Jenny Rees, 402-762-3644

• Nov. 30 in Hartington at Nissen Wine, 88973 Highway 57, Jim Jansen, 402-254-6821

• Dec. 1 in Columbus at Pinnacle Bank, 310 E. 23rd St., Allan Vyhnalek, 402-563-4901

• Dec. 2 in Arlington at the Washington County Fairgrounds, 23656 Highway 30, Steve Tonn, 402-426-9455

• Dec. 10 in Syracuse at the Kimmel Ag Expo Center, 198 Plum St., Monte Vandeveer, 402-269-2301

• Dec. 15 in Scottsbluff at the Panhandle Research and Extension Center, 4502 Ave. I, Jessica Groskopf, 308-632-1247

• Dec. 16 in Sidney at the Cheyenne County Community Center, 627 Toledo St., Karen DeBoer, 308-254-4455

Source: UNL Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources

Avian influenza outbreak impacts young poultry producers

Avian influenza outbreak impacts young poultry producers

The Nebraska Department of Agriculture joined surrounding states early this summer in cancelling all live poultry events statewide through the end of 2015. This action was taken to reduce the chance of spreading the highly pathogenic avian influenza to more poultry operations. A total of 4.9 million laying hens and pullets from five flocks were humanely depopulated in Dixon County after the disease was confirmed positive at those locations.

POULTRY AMBASSADOR: Fifteen-year-old Kimberly Hines of O'Neill runs her family's laying hen operation and promotes poultry through 4-H and FFA projects.

County fairs, swap meets, exotic and live bird auctions, Ak-Sar-Ben and the Nebraska State Fair were impacted by the poultry show cancellations. So were hundreds of 4-H, FFA and other poultry exhibitors who tend commercial and show flocks. Fifteen-year-old Kimberly Hines of O'Neill is one of those exhibitors.

"I have been showing poultry at the fair ever since I was old enough to carry chickens to the show table," Hines says. "My older brother and his friends showed poultry, so I helped hold them. When I was six years old, I was finally in 4-H as a Clover Kid and had my own show chickens," she recalls. "I now show poultry in 4-H and FFA. This year I had nine bantam chickens and six large fowl chickens that I was planning to show."

In addition, Hines operates a commercial laying hen flock with her family. "I have 250 laying hens," she says. "I took over operation of the laying hen business from my older brother when I was nine years old." With her family licensed to market eggs from their operation, Hines is learning not only about caring for the flock, but also marketing eggs to local restaurants, customers and neighbors.

POSTERS INSTEAD OF ANIMALS: At Nebraska State Fair this year, several poultry exhibitors opted to develop posters discussing the impact of avian influenza on the industry.

In many ways, she is a young poultry ambassador. "Different breeds of poultry have different personalities and temperament," Hines says. "There is also a lot of variety in colors, feather patterns and comb shapes in the different breeds." These factors along with exhibiting poultry with her friends are the reasons she enjoys the flocks and her projects.

But avian influenza threw a curve to her operation and poultry show plans this summer. Instead of showing live chickens, Hines exhibited 4-H and FFA poultry project posters at the Knox County Fair in Bloomfield in August, discussing the different parts of a chicken using information she has acquired in preparation for poultry showmanship. For showmanship, Hines and other exhibitors were able to use stuffed animal versions of a chicken to simulate the competition. It wasn't the same as showing a live animal, but Hines understands the impact of influenza and the threat of its spread.

Meticulous animal care is part of normal operating for Hines. True to her family's biosecurity and animal health plan, she keeps the commercial flock and show poultry in their own building. "I keep the pullets and cockerels separate so the pullets won't get pecked and I feed them a special feed and a lot of water," she says.

Poultry is an important part of her young life, so Hines says that she is hopeful that migratory birds this fall and winter will not be carrying influenza once again to Nebraska and threatening her livelihood. Get more information on avian influenza at

Automated Tractor Corporation39s eDrive system offers a path to autonomous tractor operation The firm has sold its first system to an Illinoisbased group
<p>Automated Tractor Corporation&#39;s eDrive system offers a path to autonomous tractor operation. The firm has sold its first system to an Illinois-based group.</p>

Driverless tractor getting closer to farms

Earlier this year we reported on a diesel-electric powertrain replacement package called eDrive that turns your current tractor into a diesel-electric hybrid. It is made by the same company, Autonomous Tractor Corporation, that designed Spirit, the prototype tractor that the company says is the first truly autonomous farm tractor.

Yesterday ATC announced that it just sold the first of these drivetrain packages to FarmilyFarms Group, a farm business consulting group headquartered near St. Louis, Mo. The sale is a big move for two reasons: 1) FamilyFarm Group’s clients, who are farmers, represent more than 1.5 million acres of row crop production throughout North America, and 2) the electric drivetrain is the enabling technology behind making tractors capable of autonomous control.

“I wanted to let you know that [through this the sale of the drivetrain package] ATC took its first commercial steps in putting truly autonomous tractors (meaning no driver, not driver-assistance) into farmers' hands to help with their field work,” says  ATC’s CEO Kraig Schulz in an email to Farm Industry News. “While Tesla, Google and others are rapidly transforming the automotive market with electric and autonomous technology ATC is the first company to bring this technology to the farm.”

ATC is taking additional orders for its drivetrain now. “We’ve also launched a fundraising campaign on AgFunder, so any accredited investor nationwide can invest in our company,” Shulz says.

For more information on eDrive, visit or call 203-993-0828. For more information on FamilyFarms Group, visit

grain dryer

8 Tips for keeping stored grain in top condition

Low commodity prices and high yields this harvest season point to farmers storing larger quantities of grain for a longer period of time. However, capitalizing on the opportunity for higher, future commodity prices requires proper management to protect grain quality, according to Gary Woodruff, conditioning applications manager with GSI.

Woodruff advises that moisture content should not exceed 15% to safely store grain through next spring. Farmers planning to store grain through next fall, he says, should maintain a moisture content no higher than 14%, or not above 13% to store for one year or longer.

“Grain held above these moisture thresholds, particularly in larger bins, will experience heating and loss of grade, even if high airflow is available because there won’t be enough air to properly dry the grain,” he warns. “As a result, it will lose test weight and quality.”

His recommendations for protecting grain quality during long-term storage also include:

  1. Grain taken straight from the field is the most difficult to store long-term, even at 15% or below. Because the kernel is a live seed, insects, mold and fungus are alive. Proper drying improves storage life by reducing these threats to storage life. Market grain that was stored straight from the field first, if at all possible.
  2. As grain enters the bin, run aeration fans to equalize kernel grain moisture. This typically takes five to 10 days, but this year where maturity is highly variable, run fans for 10-15 days. This puts the grain in the best shape to store safely.
  3. Watch the ambient temperature and use aeration fans to get the grain temperature below 50oF as soon as possible. Nearly all insect and mold activity ceases below this temperature.
  4. It’s okay to leave corn cold as long as it will be marketed no later than May. For grain held past May, maintain its temperature within 10oF to 15oF of the outside air to avoid grain deterioration caused by condensation.
  5. Soon after harvest, pull the bins with peaked grain down so the center is just below the corn at the wall. The grain will look somewhat like the letter M from the side, promoting air movement in the center. Leveling at this point is also a good practice.
  6. On farms with multiple bins, don’t completely empty one bin at a time when it comes time to sell the grain. Instead, when possible, rotate the bin from which the grain is removed. This not only promotes air movement, but also reduces the risk of the discharge being blocked by out-of-condition fines.
  7. Check the grain weekly. Climb to the top of the bin, without entering, and observe whether there is a crust or any noticeable smell. An increase in surface moisture usually is the first sign of problems.
  8. The only real fix for out-of-condition issues not stopped by aeration is to unload the bin down to where the affected grain can be removed. This likely means the grain will have to be marketed early and poor grain quality may receive a dock at the elevator.

Woodruff adds that in areas where maturity is variable, there will be a percentage of immature kernels even in grain harvested below 20%. This makes storage much more difficult and limits safe storage life significantly.

Safe storage, he notes, doesn’t happen by accident – it’s a matter of science. “Prevention is the key to dealing with out-of-condition grain. That takes management and planning.”

Commercial citrus could be quarantined for ACP
<p>Commercial citrus near the General Beale Road area of Kern County could soon be in a quarantine for the Asian citrus psyllid due to a recent spike in the pest population in the area.</p>

Asian citrus psyllid pest expands California base

Asian citrus psyllids are found in larger numbers in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California. This time in considerable numbers in the city of Bakersfield and now in the Stanislaus County city of Turlock.

The latest finds mark the first discoveries of the invasive pest in Stanislaus County, according to Milton O’Haire, county agricultural commissioner.

The Stanislaus County find follows discoveries in neighboring San Joaquin County a year ago. Those followed earlier finds of a breeding population in San Jose.

The Turlock discoveries were confirmed on yellow sticky traps used by the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA). No live psyllids have been discovered at this point, O’Haire says.

Sampling protocols are different than in other portions of the SJV, he says.

Sticky traps are being placed on trees within nine miles of the initial find and are being saturated throughout the region as inspector’s canvas neighborhoods looking for citrus plants. The ACP is only known to feed on and infect citrus with a fatal bacterial disease called Huanglongbing (HLB), or citrus greening disease.

O’Haire says the process is being slowed by canvassing the neighborhood to inspect yards for citrus trees.

Treatment of citrus plants will take place within 400 meters of the initial find, not the 800 meters common in other regions of the state. A quarantine zone is being prepared to encompass a five-mile radius of the discovery. Traps will be placed out to a radius of nine miles.

While the nearest commercial citrus is a considerable distance away in the western portion of the county, O’Haire says two large commercial nurseries in neighboring cities and perhaps two more that could be built in the county may be impacted by quarantines as they are established.

O’Haire says the two large nurseries are already screened and employ protocols to keep out the ACP, which can vector HLB by feeding on citrus.

Stanislaus County agricultural officials are increasing their inspections of flea markets, farmers markets and other venues where citrus is commonly sold to ensure quarantine regulations are met and that the pest is not present in trees or on plant material.

“Our biggest concern right now is home-grown citrus,” O’Haire said.

Quick growth in Bakersfield

Kern County Agricultural Commissioner Ruben Arroyo reports multiple pest finds in the county – predominantly within the city of Bakersfield, including a breeding population discovered in a west Bakersfield neighborhood.

Arroyo says inspectors are finding new psyllids “almost daily” in the region. The area is at the south end of the SJV and includes one of the larger commercial citrus growing regions in the state.

Because of the large number of finds, Arroyo says his staff is assisting the CDFA in trap inspections and searches for the pest.

Kern County is home to over 64,000 acres of commercial citrus, which generally skirts Bakersfield on the east and south.

At least one discovery was made in commercial citrus near Arvin, south of Bakersfield, Arroyo said.

The discoveries on the east side of the city will likely place some of the county’s commercial citrus within a quarantine zone. The citrus is generally located east of Weedpatch Highway to the General Beale Road area and south of Hwy. 58 to as far south as Herring Road, based on a map provided by Arroyo.

Commercial groves east of Hwy. 99 between about David Road on the north to the edge of the foothills south of Arvin and Lamont are already within an ACP quarantine, according to the same map.

Because not all of Kern County is currently under an ACP quarantine, certain regulatory procedures are in place to restrict how citrus is moved between southern California, where the pest is well-established, and the San Joaquin Valley.

Tulare County, which neighbors Kern County to the north, is the northernmost county in the state with a countywide ACP quarantine. Tulare and Kern counties produce much of the state’s fresh citrus. Combined nearly 200,000 acres of commercial citrus is grown in the two counties.

Parts of California’s Central Coast also have populations of the ACP. To date the only discoveries of HLB, or citrus greening disease, found in California continues to be in the San Gabriel Valley region of Los Angeles County. Nine trees have been confirmed positive for the disease since 2012, with most of those discoveries happening this summer.

Those trees were removed by the CDFA in an attempt to slow the spread of HLB.

For the latest on western agriculture, please check out Western Farm Press Daily and receive the latest news right to your inbox.

Corn+Soybean Digest

5 Agriculture stories to read, Oct.30, 2015

In the 5 ag stories to read this week, get advice from experts on not skimping on crop inputs and see what a balance sheet looks like with lower farmland prices. Read about an EU rejection of opting out of biotech food and learn about changing chisel points to increase residue. Finally help out an ag-friendly Senator who supports biotech and a uniform food labeling system.