The recent tragic deaths of three adult brothers, all in their 30s, who reportedly lost consciousness while performing maintenance in a manure pit is a grim reminder of the dangers associated with manure handling, according to an Extension specialist in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences.
The Aug. 10 incident, which took place in western Ohio, serves as a warning that could help prevent others from becoming victims in manure storage and handling accidents, notes Robert Meinen, senior Extension associate in the college's Department of Animal Science.
"Considering the amount of time producers and professional manure handlers spend working with manure, these incidents can be viewed as relatively infrequent occurrences," Meinen says. "However, in working with the manure-handling industry, I have come to realize that many instances of falls, loss of consciousness and livestock deaths go unreported."
Meinen cites a recent article published in the Journal of Agromedicine by researchers at Purdue University that summarized injuries and fatalities associated with manure storage, handling and transport. The study confirmed the lack of accident documentation, especially in scenarios where life was not lost.
Asphyxiation, primarily from hydrogen sulfide intoxication, is a leading cause of severe injury and death associated with manure handling. In another study, Purdue researchers looked at 91 deaths — seven from Pennsylvania — and 21 severe injuries related to manure-generated gas from 1974 to 2004. They reported that 34% of the gas exposure deaths occurred during repair or maintenance, and 22% of deaths were among those attempting rescue.
"Clearly, performing maintenance and attempting rescue of another person are very dangerous activities," Meinen says. "It appears that the three brothers in Ohio were performing some type of manure pump maintenance and were victims of gas exposure."
Young people at risk
Some research suggests that 20% to 25% of manure gas fatalities involve young people, with incidents often claiming more than one victim. Contributing factors include young people’s lack of awareness of basic storage and handling hazards, lack of appropriate safety equipment, failure to comply with safe confined-space practices, and lack of supervision or training.
Meinen identifies recurring themes common to many reports of manure-related incidents that farmers should keep in mind when they are handling manure or are near storage facilities:
Gas exposure. The most dangerous manure gas is hydrogen sulfide, which can cause immediate asphyxiation at high levels. "Some of today's economic imports to the farm, such as distillers grains or gypsum bedding, increase sulfur levels in manure," Meinen says. "Microbial degradation of sulfur compounds in storage leaves hydrogen sulfide as a byproduct."
Repair and equipment retrieval is dangerous. "It's tempting to enter a confined area for a quick job. Do not do that," Meinen warns. "Remove equipment for maintenance, and retrieve dropped items with a magnet or hook."
Smart rescue. Rescuers are at risk and often end up as victims. "Never go in to try to retrieve someone without proper rescue equipment," Meinen says. "That’s easy to say, but perhaps harder to adhere to when a family member or co-worker is in trouble. In this situation, it is better to be an unsung hero by operating in a manner that minimizes risk and avoids these situations in the first place. Don’t become a statistic."
Protect children. Make choices for children. "Adults should take precautions to educate and protect children who live on or visit a farm, and this means providing child-proof barricades to manure storage and handling areas," Meinen advises. "Prevent entry and falls for everyone."
Solid manure risks. Liquid manures are more dangerous than solid manures. Nonetheless, solid manure systems can he hazardous as well. "I know two local men who have lost consciousness while moving poultry broiler litter," Meinen says.
Avoid routine thinking. Complacency kills. "It's not unusual in fatality situations to hear things like, 'He's gone in there to unclog that pump a hundred times.' Make safety your routine,” Meinen says.
Air it out. Ventilate! All manure is organic material that is undergoing microbial degradation, Meinen explains, and gases are a byproduct of these microbial processes. Agitation and movement of manure in storage can release gases at dangerous levels. "Keep air moving through confined spaces and animal housing areas," he says.
Take a break. You can work yourself to death. It may run counter to farmers' work ethic, but take a break and clear all workers from the area at the first sign of gas exposure or dangerous gas levels, Meinen cautions.
Monitor gases. Use monitors. Gas monitors, which can be worn on a belt, provide an alarm to warn you of invisible dangers. A number of vendors sell or rent reliable monitors, Meinen says.
Meinen notes that more information related to manure handling and storage safety can be found on the Penn State Extension website by searching "manure safety."