Most crop producers in Minnesota and surrounding states were still enrolled in the county yield-based Ag Risk Coverage (ARC-CO) farm program choice on their corn and soybean base acres for the 2018 crop year. ARC-CO is based on both crop yields and prices. The Price Loss Coverage (PLC) farm program option is a price-only program that is based on national crop prices, which may be more popular for the 2019 and 2020 crop years.
The market year average (MYA) price for a given crop year is used to calculate any potential payments for the PLC and ARC-CO programs. The historical MYA prices are also used to determine the benchmark revenues for the ARC-CO program option. The MYA price for a given commodity is not based on the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) commodity prices, or any specific local or terminal grain prices. The MYA price is the 12-month national average price for a commodity, based on the average market price received at the first point of sale by farm operators across the United States. The USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) collects grain sales data on a monthly basis, which is then weighted at the end of the year, based on the volume of bushels sold in each month.
For the 2018 crop year, the 12-month marketing period to determine the final MYA price was from Sept. 1, 2018 through Aug. 31, 2019, with the MYA price being finalized on Sept. 30, 2019. The MYA marketing period for wheat and other small grain crops is from June 1 in the year of harvest to May 31 the following year. The final 2018-19 MYA prices that were used for 2018 farm program payment calculations were $3.61 per bushel for corn, $8.48 per bushel for soybeans, and $5.16 per bushel for wheat.
PLC payments are being made on any crops that had a final 2018-19 MYA price lower than the established reference price for that crop. Corn had a final MYA price of $3.61 per bushel, compared to a reference price of $3.70 per bushel, resulting in a PLC payment rate of $.09 per bushel. Wheat had a final MYA price of $4.72 per bushel, compared to a reference price of $5.50 per bushel, resulting in a 2018 PLC payment of $.34 per bushel. So, any producers enrolled in the PLC program for corn or wheat for 2018 will receive a PLC payment.
There were no 2018 soybean PLC payments, due to the final 2018-19 soybean MYA price being $8.48 per bushel, compared to a reference price of $8.40 per bushel. PLC payments are made on 85 percent of FSA crop base acres for a crop times the established FSA yield on a particular farm. In most Upper Midwest states, less than 10 percent of the corn and soybean producers are enrolled in the PLC program. Approximately half of the wheat producers are in the PLC program.
Only six counties in south-central Minnesota, which had significantly reduced corn yields in 2018 due to excessive rainfall, are receiving a 2018 ARC-CO payment for corn. These counties include Brown, Faribault, Jackson, Martin, Redwood and Watonwan. Some counties north-central Iowa, as well as in the western half of North and South Dakota, will also receive 2018 corn ARC-CO payments, due to yield reductions in 2018. A much larger number of counties in the Upper Midwest and Plains states are scheduled to receive a 2018 ARC-CO payment for wheat.
There are only five counties in Minnesota scheduled to qualify for 2018 soybean ARC-CO payments, including Faribault, Jackson, Martin, and Watonwan counties in south-central Minnesota, as well as Kittson County in northwest Minnesota. A much higher number of counties in Iowa, North and South Dakota will receive 2018 soybean ARC-CO payments. Due to the decline in the 2018-2019 soybean MYA price to $8.48 per bushel, which was well below the $9.63 benchmark price, a final 2018 county yield that was only a couple bushels below the county benchmark yield resulted in the initiation of 2018 ARC-CO payments for soybeans.
Producers should be aware that most quoted ARC-CO and PLC payment rates per acre for corn, soybeans and other crops are on a gross payment per acre basis. These gross ARC-CO and PLC payments need to be factored by 85 percent (.85), in order to arrive at an ARC-CO payment rate per crop base acre. The 2018 ARC-CO and PLC payments are also subject to the required Federal sequestration reduction of 6.8 percent (.068), which will affect the final total payment received by farm operators.
Resources for estimating 2018 ARC-CO payments
Kent Thiesse has developed an information sheet: Estimating Final 2018 Corn and Soybean ARC-CO Payments, which looks at the final 2018-19 MYA prices and ARC-CO payments for corn and soybeans, as well as a look ahead to 2019 ARC-CO payments. To receive a copy of this information sheet send an e-mail to email@example.com.
The USDA FSA ARC/PLC website contains 2014-2018 ARC-CO payment rates, as well as a variety of other farm program data and information for all crops.
- Kansas State University also has some very good interactive maps for 2018 ARC-CO payments, as well as historical ARC-CO payment data, available on their Farm Manager website.