As summer and fall weather makes way for the start of the cold weather season across much of the country this month, harvest has all but wrapped up across southern and western regions of the nation.
The United States Department of Agriculture’s National Agricultural Statistical Service's (USDA-NASS) October Crop Production estimate indicates yields and production this year for some U.S. crops will be slightly lower than last year, though a few commodities will fare better than the 2017 numbers.
Overall the October report indicates the production of corn, dry edible beans, rice, soybeans and grain sorghum will be higher this year while cotton, peanuts, and sunflowers will be slightly lower.
According to USDA-NASS agricultural statistician Tomas Resendiz and student assistant Ricardo Lowe in the Southern Plains Regional Field Office, Texas and Oklahoma production numbers for October differ considerably than the national averages. The Southern Plains Regional Office is responsible for producing crop production estimates for Oklahoma and Texas.
The October Row Crop harvested and production forecasts are based on a survey of approximately 1,400 Texas and Oklahoma growers conducted by the regional field office. The survey is conducted primarily by telephone with some use of mail, internet, and personal interviews. For Texas cotton, an objective yield survey is conducted in addition to the grower's survey. Actual counts of plants and boll weights are collected from small plots set up in producer fields and are used in conjunction with the results of the grower's survey to forecast overall yield and production expectations for Texas cotton.
Data provided by Oklahoma and Texas operators are the foundation of the estimates for the Southern Plains region.
The October report indicates Oklahoma Upland Cotton production totaled 930 thousand bales, 9 percent lower than 2017. Yield averaged 783 pounds per acre, compared with 882 pounds last year. Acreage harvested, at 570 thousand acres, is up 3 percent from last year. In Texas, upland cotton production totaled 6.70 million bales, 28 percent lower than 2017. Yield averaged 715 pounds per acre, compared with 809 pounds last year. Acreage harvested, at 4.50 million acres, is down 18 percent from last year.
Corn production in Oklahoma totaled 36.4 million bushels, down 5 percent from the previous year. Statewide yields averaged 130 bushels per acre, 4 bushels higher than 2017. Acres harvested for grain, at 280 thousand, are down 8 percent from last year, while Texas corn production totaled 204 million bushels, down 35 percent from the previous year. Statewide yields averaged 107 bushels per acre, 33 bushels lower than 2017. Acres harvested for grain, at 1.91 million, are down 15 percent from last year.
Grain sorghum production was down for both states compared to 2017 numbers. In Oklahoma, production totaled 13.0 million bushels, down 17 percent from last year. Yields averaged 50 bushels per acre, down 3 bushels from the previous year. Acres harvested, at 260 thousand acres, are 12 percent lower than 2017. Texas sorghum production totaled 74.2 million bushels, down 21 percent from last year. Yield averaged 53 bushels per acre, down 10 bushels from the previous year. Acres harvested, at 1.40 million acres, are 7 percent lower than 2017.
Oklahoma soybean production is forecast at 19.2 million bushels, up 4 percent from last year. Yield is expected to average 31 bushels per acre, compared with 29 bushels in 2017. Harvested acreage, at 620 thousand acres, is 3 percent lower than last year. While Texas soybean production is forecast at 4.96 million bushels, down 28 percent from last year. Yield is expected to average 32 bushels per acre, compared with 37.0 bushels in 2017. Harvested acreage, at 155 thousand acres, is 16 percent lower than last year.
Peanut production in both states declined significantly after attractive production numbers in 2017. Oklahoma peanut production is 41 percent lower than last year, at 46.5 million pounds. Yield is forecast at 3,100 pounds per acre, down 680 pounds from 2017. Harvested acres is down 29 percent from last year to 15 thousand acres. Texas peanut production is 31 percent lower than last year, at 479 million pounds. Yield is forecast at 3,300 pounds per acre, down 20.0 pounds from 2017. Harvested acres is down 31 percent from last year to 145 thousand acres.
Meanwhile, Texas rice producers are reporting a much better year compared to 2017. Texas rice production is forecast at 13.6 million cwt, up 19 percent from 2017. Yield is expected to average 7,100 pounds per acre, 160 pounds lower than last year. Harvested acreage is forecast at 192 thousand acres, up 22 percent from last year.
Overall, USDA-NASS estimates indicate combined pecan production numbers for Texas-Oklahoma have declined this year compared to 2017, or an estimated 52 million pounds last year to 41 million pounds in 2018.